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Medical and Research Library News - October 2020

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Training opportunities
Websites and reports on trending topics
Journal articles of note

October 2020  

Training opportunities

DSHS Fall Grand Rounds Returns
October 28, 2020; 11 – 12:30 p.m. – Chronic Pain and Substance Use
November 18, 2020; 11 – 12:30 p.m. – Vaping
Stay tuned for more details. https://www.dshs.texas.gov/grandrounds/about.shtm

Note: The following webinars and online classes are not affiliated with DSHS or the DSHS Library. They are presented here as opportunities to learn more information of interest to public health personnel. All times listed are in Central Daylight Time.

October 7, 2020; 2–3 p.m. Climate policy is health policy: Making your case with a powerful online modeling tool. This webinar will teach climate and health advocates how to use a free, easy-to-use, online modeling tool to demonstrate the vital importance of climate and energy policy for protecting public health and reducing premature death. Participants will get an advance look at the newly updated model with added public health capabilities. This webinar is jointly sponsored by the American Public Health Association, Energy Innovation and the Medical Society Consortium on Climate and Health. https://energyinnovation.zoom.us/webinar/register/WN_fpJ2JQnLTdq4InCEklxiqQ

October 8, 2020; 1–2 p.m. Heart matters webinar: Cardiovascular implications of COVID-19. This webinar from VCU Health will explore the relationship of cardiovascular disease and COVID-19, including impacts on diagnosis, treatment, and potential long-term effects. https://vcu.cloud-cme.com/course/courseoverview?P=0&EID=17478

October 8, 2020; 2–3 p.m. Systematic racism, health disparities, and COVID-19: Leading through complex trauma with resilience and hope. How do seemingly unrelated but overwhelming global events connect to create complex trauma? How do we reckon with systemic racism, health disparities, COVID-19, and the unprecedented social and economic stress impacting individuals, families, and communities across cultures, generations, genders, and racial groups? Join this webinar from the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO) to learn about the tools for supporting individuals as they develop healing and resiliency around complex trauma. https://thenationalcouncil-org.zoom.us/webinar/register/WN_31gnhlnSQEyb8b9XlvTbFg

October 15, 2020; 12–1:30 p.m. Mass vaccination clinics: Challenges and best practices. Mass vaccination clinics allow the rapid and efficient administration of vaccines to many people over a relatively short period of time. This approach can help during delivery of routinely recommended vaccines like influenza. It can also be used once COVID-19 vaccines are released. How can you plan and manage such a daunting undertaking? Attend this webinar presented by Immunization Action Coalition (IAC) and find out. https://zoom.us/webinar/register/WN_W92BCxnITbOb_QXnCeHvdQ

October 22, 2020; 2-3 p.m. Mental health first aid: A primer for public health professionals and communities. Mental Health First Aid is a skills-based training course that teaches participants about mental health and substance use issues. More importantly, however, symptoms of specific illnesses. This primer provides concrete tools and engagement with local mental health resources, national organizations, support groups, and online tools for mental health and addiction treatment and support. Presented by Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO). https://thenationalcouncil-org.zoom.us/webinar/register/WN_rYXwrvFxQDWdaeXoi47cQQ

October 27, 2020; 1:15-2:30 p.m. FDA drug topics: Labeling made simple: The how, what, and where of drug interactions in prescribing. This webinar will provide an overview of the evolution of prescribing information (PI) format and content, key regulations impacting drug interaction (DI) content in the PI, and the regulatory science behind, including essential DI information in the PI. Presented by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). https://collaborationcqpub1.fda.gov/content/connect/c1/7/en/events/event/shared/94630851/event_registration.html?sco-id=183014296&_charset_=utf-8

Websites and reports on trending topics

Coronavirus self-checker - The Coronavirus Self-Checker is an interactive clinical assessment tool that will assist individuals ages 13 and older, and parents and caregivers of children ages 2 to 12 on deciding when to seek testing or medical care if they suspect they or someone they know has contracted COVID-19 or has come into close contact with someone who has COVID-19. Provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/symptoms-testing/coronavirus-self-checker.html

Improving maternal health access, coverage, and outcomes in Medicaid: A resource for state Medicaid agencies and Medicaid Managed Care Organizations - This report reflects the Institute for Medicaid Innovation’s ambitious national project to answer critical questions that are needed to advance maternal health, specific to the midwifery-led model of care, for the Medicaid population. https://www.medicaidinnovation.org/_images/content/2020-IMI Improving_Maternal_Health_Access_Coverage_and_Outcomes-Report.pdf

October is Breast Cancer Awareness Month - Each year in the United States, more than 250,000 women get breast cancer and 42,000 women die from the disease. This website from the CDC will help you recognize symptoms, identify risk factors and lower your risk. https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/dcpc/resources/features/breastcancerawareness/index.htm

Promoting mask-wearing during the COVID-19 pandemic: A policymaker's guide - This document draws on scientific evidence from the COVID-19 pandemic and from prior public health research on behavior change, with the purpose of empowering governments to measure face mask use in their jurisdictions and promote widespread adoption of masks in the general population. From the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security. https://preventepidemics.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/08/Promoting-Mask-Wearing-During-COVID-19.pdf

WIC infant and toddler feeding practices study 2: Fourth year report - This report, the fifth in the series generated from this study, focuses on the dietary intake patterns and weight status of children during the fourth year of life. The report also examines families’ WIC experiences and their perceptions of the program’s impact. From the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). https://www.fns.usda.gov/wic/infant-and-toddler-feeding-practices-study-2-fourth-year-report

Journal articles of note

Boehmer TK, DeVies J, Caruso E, et al. Changing age distribution of the COVID-19 pandemic - United States, May-August 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Oct 2;69(39):1404-1409. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6939e1. 
As of September 21, 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had resulted in more than 6,800,000 reported U.S. cases and more than 199,000 associated deaths.* Early in the pandemic, COVID-19 incidence was highest among older adults (1). CDC examined the changing age distribution of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States during May-August by assessing three indicators: COVID-19-like illness-related emergency department (ED) visits, positive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, and confirmed COVID-19 cases. Nationwide, the median age of COVID-19 cases declined from 46 years in May to 37 years in July and 38 in August. Similar patterns were seen for COVID-19-like illness-related ED visits and positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test results in all U.S. Census regions. During June-August, COVID-19 incidence was highest in persons aged 20-29 years, who accounted for >20% of all confirmed cases. The southern United States experienced regional outbreaks of COVID-19 in June. In these regions, increases in the percentage of positive SARS-CoV-2 test results among adults aged 20-39 years preceded increases among adults aged ?60 years by an average of 8.7 days (range = 4-15 days), suggesting that younger adults likely contributed to community transmission of COVID-19. Given the role of asymptomatic and presymptomatic transmission (2), strict adherence to community mitigation strategies and personal preventive behaviors by younger adults is needed to help reduce their risk for infection and subsequent transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to persons at higher risk for severe illness.

Cozza V, Campbell H, Chang HH, et al. Global seasonal influenza mortality estimates: a comparison of three different approaches. Am J Epidemiol. 2020 Sep 11:kwaa196. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwaa196. Epub ahead of print.
Prior to updating global influenza-associated mortality estimates, the World Health Organization convened a consultation in July 2017 to understand differences in methodology and implications on results of three influenza mortality projects from the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Netherlands Institute for Health Service Research (GLaMOR), and the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME). The expert panel reviewed estimates and discussed differences in data sources, analysis, and modeling assumptions. We performed a comparison analysis of the estimates. Influenza-associated respiratory death counts were comparable between CDC and GLaMOR; IHME estimate was considerably lower. The greatest country-specific influenza-associated mortality rate fold differences between CDC/IHME and between GLaMOR/IHME estimates were among countries in South-East Asia and Eastern Mediterranean region. The data envelope used for the calculation was one of the major differences (CDC and GLaMOR: all respiratory deaths; IHME: low respiratory infection deaths). With the assumption that there is only one cause of death for each death, IHME estimates a fraction of the full influenza-associated respiratory mortality that is measured by the other two groups. Wide variability of parameters was observed. Continued coordination between groups could assist with better understanding of methodological differences and new approaches to estimating influenza deaths globally.

Schraw JM, Langlois PH, Lupo PJ. Comprehensive assessment of the associations between maternal diabetes and structural birth defects in offspring: A phenome-wide association study. Ann Epidemiol. 2020 Sep 10:S1047-2797(20)30287-8. doi: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2020.08.006. Epub ahead of print. 
Purpose: Our objective was to comprehensively evaluate risk of a broad range of birth defects among offspring of women with diabetes, overall and stratified by pre-gestational versus gestational diagnosis, using the phenome-wide association (PheWAS) methodology.
Methods: We performed a registry linkage study of all livebirths (>6,500,000) and birth defects cases (>290,000) in Texas, 1999-2015. We ascertained diabetes from birth and fetal death certificates. We calculated prevalence rate ratios (PRR) for phenotypes with ?10 cases among exposed offspring (N=130).
Results: Diabetes was associated with prevalence of any defect (PRR 1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.38-1.42), multiple defects (PRR 1.86, 95% CI 1.81-1.91), and 60 specific phenotypes, including novel (hypospadias, mitral stenosis) and previously reported phenotypes (renal a-/dysgenesis, spinal anomalies). Pre-gestational diabetes was a stronger risk factor for any defect (PRR 2.00, 95% CI 1.93-2.07), multiple defects (PRR 3.27, 95% CI 3.11-3.44), and the 60 specific phenotypes evaluated. Gestational diabetes was associated with any defect (PRR 1.21, 95% CI 1.19-1.23) and 47 specific birth defects phenotypes, although associations were weaker than for pregestational diabetes.
Conclusions: The PheWAS is an efficient way to identify risk factors for disease using population-based registry data. Pre-gestational diabetes is associated with a broader range of phenotypes than previously reported. Because diabetes is diagnosed in 1% of women prior to pregnancy and 6-9% during pregnancy, our results highlight a significant public health concern.

Scott-Sheldon LAJ, Hedges LV, Cyr C, et al. Childhood obesity evidence base project: A systematic review and meta-analysis of a new taxonomy of intervention components to improve weight status in children 2-5 years of age, 2005-2019. Child Obes. 2020 Sep;16(S2):S221-S248. doi: 10.1089/chi.2020.0139. 
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of childhood obesity interventions and conduct a taxonomy of intervention components that are most effective in changing obesity-related health outcomes in children 2-5 years of age. 
Methods: Comprehensive searches located 51 studies from 18,335 unique records. Eligible studies: (1) assessed children aged 2-5, living in the United States; (2) evaluated an intervention to improve weight status; (3) identified a same-aged comparison group; (4) measured BMI; and (5) were available between January 2005 and August 2019. Coders extracted study, sample, and intervention characteristics. Effect sizes [ESs; and 95% confidence intervals (CIs)] were calculated by using random-effects models. Meta-regression was used to determine which intervention components explain variability in ESs. Results: Included were 51 studies evaluating 58 interventions (N = 29,085; mean age = 4 years; 50% girls). Relative to controls, children receiving an intervention had a lower BMI at the end of the intervention (g = 0.10, 95% CI = 0.02-0.18; k = 55) and at the last follow-up (g = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.04-0.30; k = 14; range = 18-143 weeks). Three intervention components moderated efficacy: engage caregivers in praise/encouragement for positive health-related behavior; provide education about the importance of screen time reduction to caregivers; and engage pediatricians/health care providers. 
Conclusions: Early childhood obesity interventions are effective in reducing BMI in preschool children. Our findings suggest that facilitating caregiver education about the importance of screen time reduction may be an important strategy in reducing early childhood obesity.

Ziller E, Milkowski C. A century later: Rural public health's enduring challenges and opportunities. Am J Public Health. 2020 Sep 17:e1-e9. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2020.305868. Epub ahead of print. 
The US public health community has demonstrated increasing awareness of rural health disparities in the past several years. Although current interest is high, the topic is not new, and some of the earliest public health literature includes reports on infectious disease and sanitation in rural places. Continuing through the first third of the 20th century, dozens of articles documented rural disparities in infant and maternal mortality, sanitation and water safety, health care access, and among Black, Indigenous, and People of Color communities. Current rural research reveals similar challenges, and strategies suggested for addressing rural-urban health disparities 100 years ago resonate today. This article examines rural public health literature from a century ago and its connections to contemporary rural health disparities. We describe parallels between current and historical rural public health challenges and discuss how strategies proposed in the early 20th century may inform current policy and practice. As we explore the new frontier of rural public health, it is critical to consider enduring rural challenges and how to ensure that proposed solutions translate into actual health improvements.

For more information, employees may email the Medical and Research Library at library@dshs.texas.gov or call 512-776-7559 to receive other research assistance, learn how to access electronic materials, or to obtain the full-text of articles mentioned in this month's news.

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Last updated October 6, 2020