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Medical and Research Library News - October 2019

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Training opportunities
Websites and reports on trending topics*
Journal articles of note*

October 2019

mrl-diamondTraining opportunities

Note: The following webinars and online classes are not affiliated with DSHS or the DSHS Library. They are presented here as opportunities to learn more information of interest to public health personnel. All times listed are in Central Daylight Time.

October 9, 2019; 10-11 a.m. Don’t Forget Animals When Planning for Disasters. Experience has taught that to protect public safety and health we must include animals in planning for disasters. This talk will provide examples highlighting the need to plan for animals in disasters. The five phases of emergency management will be discussed, and the various roles of local, state, and federal governments will be explained. Additionally, the types of threats that may impact animals will be covered. Examples of the partnerships needed for the effective planning for animals in disasters will be provided. Presented by the National Network of Libraries of Medicine. https://nnlm.gov/class/don-t-forget-animals-when-planning-disasters/17737

October 15, 2019; 1-2 p.m. The Intersection of Opioids and Hepatitis in the US and Resources Available. The opioid crisis in the United States has led to increased hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among younger populations of people who inject drugs (PWID) and other vulnerable populations, who often seek care at community health centers. Early treatment for HCV can lead to decreased transmission rates and increased cure rates with advances in oral medications. This webinar is Part 1 of a four-part series by the National Nurse-Led Care Consortium (NNCC). https://zoom.us/webinar/register/WN_1NepgTVDTg-Sz7yfFHkNwQ

October 16, 2019; 1-5 p.m. Care Delivery Innovation: Why, How, and the Impact. This free, live Web event from the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) Catalyst will feature sessions on innovation in care delivery through expanding the scope of care to increase its impact, reorganizing primary and specialty care, and reframing care delivery to focus on health rather than illness. http://join.catalyst.nejm.org/events/health-care-innovations/register?utm_source=nejmlist&utm_medium=email&utm_content=email2_nejm&utm_campaign=health-care-innovations

October 24, 2019; 1-2 p.m. Stick with It: Strategies for Boosting Adherence in HIV Care. Suboptimal adherence to HIV prevention and treatment can have dire consequences, including the spread of infection, emergence of resistance, and treatment failure. Tune in to this CE-accredited webinar to hear expert viewpoints, strategies, and clinical pearls that can help your team fine-tune your approach to HIV adherence and retention in care. The panelists will discuss interprofessional approaches for optimizing adherence, including clinic, technology, and social support interventions, and practical tips for integrating these in your daily practice. Delivered by The Prime Network and The AIDS Institute. https://primeinc.org/hivwebinars

October 25, 2019; 1-2 p.m. Food Service Risk-Factor Violation Trends. Ever wondered what’s happening with risk factor violations across the country? 
Are there variations regionally? EcoSure Health Department Intelligence has collected Public Health Department inspection data for more than 1.75 million facilities encompassing approximately 2300 (82% of total) jurisdictions in the US and Canada and analyzed the data. Learn more about what we can do to improve foodservice food safety. Sponsored by the Association of Food and Drug Officials. https://register.gotowebinar.com/register/5927423605742892812

October 31, 2019; 12-1:30 p.m. Domestic Violence Awareness Month Webinar. Join Health Resources & Services Administration (HRSA) Office of Women’s Health and Office of Regional Operations for a webinar commemorating Domestic Violence Awareness Month. The webinar will highlight state-level efforts to address intimate partner violence (IPV) and provide strategies for implementing
trauma-informed care in health settings. https://www.eventbrite.com/e/domestic-violence-awareness-month-webinar-tickets-73874258897

mrl-diamondWebsites and reports on trending topics*

Disaster Response: Federal Assistance and Selected States and Territory Efforts to Identify Deaths. This report from the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) discusses how Florida, Texas, and Puerto Rico identified and documented deaths related to Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria in 2017, and any challenges they experienced; the support selected federal agencies provided to Florida, Texas, and Puerto Rico involving disaster-related deaths; and the number of Funeral Assistance applications the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) received, approved, and denied for the 2017 hurricanes. https://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-19-486

The Power of Local Data in Action. With the City Health Dashboard, communities across the United States are using data presented on a feature-rich website to create healthier and more equitable communities. Lessons learned will help more community leaders pinpoint local health challenges and close gaps in U.S. cities and neighborhoods. From the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF). https://www.rwjf.org/en/blog/2019/08/the-power-of-local-data-in-action.html

School Success: An Opportunity for Population Health: Proceedings of a Workshop. Recognizing the bidirectional relationship between health and educational success, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s Roundtable on Population Health Improvement held a 1-day public workshop on June 14, 2018, in Oakland, California. It featured presentations 
that exemplified the relationship between the health and education sectors, and shared examples of public health interventions and activities in schools that support school success. http://www.nationalacademies.org/hmd/Reports/2019/school-success-an-opportunity-for-population-health-pw.aspx

Surveillance for Foodborne Disease Outbreaks United States, 2017: Annual Report (2019). In 2017, 841 foodborne disease outbreaks were reported, resulting in 14,481 illnesses, 827 hospitalizations, 20 deaths, and 14 food product recalls. Norovirus was the most common cause of confirmed, single-etiology outbreaks, accounting for 140 (35%) outbreaks and 4,092 (46%) illnesses. Salmonella was the next most common cause, accounting for 113 (29%) outbreaks and 3,007 (34%) illnesses, followed by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, which caused 19 (5%) outbreaks and 513 (6%) illnesses, and Clostridium perfringens, which caused 19 (5%) outbreaks and 478 (5%) illnesses. From Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). https://www.cdc.gov/fdoss/pdf/2017_FoodBorneOutbreaks_508.pdf

mrl-diamondJournal articles of note*

Cogburn CD. Culture, race, and health: implications for racial inequities and population health. Milbank Q. 2019 Sep;97(3):736-761. 
Policy Points Racism is a fundamental cause of health inequities and disease, which requires policy solutions that address this cause directly rather than only targeting mechanisms. Cultural systems, such as cultural racism, undergird the social conditions that shape racial inequities in health, including social and health policy decision making, governance, practice, and public reception. Policies targeting racial health equity benefit from integrating social theory and meaningful assessments of the social context concerning race, racism, and health.
CONTEXT: Improving the health of the total population may be insufficient in eliminating racial disparities in population health. An expanding commitment to understanding social determinants of health aims to address the social conditions that produce racialized patterns in health inequity. There is also a resurging and evolving interest in the influence of cultural barriers and assets in shaping racial inequities in health. The meaning and function of culture, however, remains underspecified.
METHODS: This paper synthesizes analogous but fragmented concepts of cultural threat related to social and racial inequity as examined in public and population health, psychology, sociology, communications, media studies, and law. It draws on an existing typology of culture and social inequity to organize concepts related to cultural racism. Employing a transdisciplinary approach, the paper integrates multiple scholarly perspectives on cultural threat to frame cultural racism as cultural systems that promote false presumptions of white superiority relative to non-whites.
FINDINGS: The lack of shared conceptual grounding and language regarding cultural threats to health hinders a more precise identification and measurement of cultural processes as well as comparisons of relative prevalence and influence of pathways linking cultural processes and social inequity. Evaluating intersections among culture, structures, and racism is a valuable analytical tool for understanding the production of social and racial inequities in health. To adequately address health inequities rooted in systemic racism, it is imperative to discuss the function of cultural racism in shaping population health in the United States.
CONCLUSIONS: Building a culture of health and achieving health equity requires that we assess cultural racism in a more meaningful way. Cultural processes are commonly referenced in health inequity scholarship, but the empirical literature generally lags behind the conceptual emphasis. A rich literature across disciplines has substantively engaged conceptualizations of culture and cultural processes, the importance of these processes as part of a system of racism, and mechanisms that may link cultural threats to health. When integrated, this literature offers essential insights for ways population health may address the complex issue of eradicating racial disparities in health.

Feachem RGA, Chen I, Akbari O, et al. Malaria eradication within a generation: ambitious, achievable, and necessary. Lancet. 2019 Sep 21;394(10203):1056-1112.
50 years after a noble but flawed attempt to eradicate malaria in the mid-20th century, the global malaria community is once again seriously considering eradication. Momentum towards eradication has been building for decades, and more than half of the world's countries are now malaria free. Since 2000, a surge of global progress has occurred, facilitated by the roll-out of new technologies and the substantial growth in political and financial commitment by countries, regions, and their global partners. Annual domestic and international spending on malaria increased from roughly US$1.5 billion in 2000 to $4.3 billion in 2016. Simultaneously, the number of countries with endemic malaria dropped from 106 to 86, the worldwide annual incidence rate of malaria declined by 36%, and the annual death rate declined by 60%.
Inspired by these outstanding achievements, and troubled by a stagnation in progress that saw 55 countries report an increase in cases between 2015 and 2017, the Lancet Commission on Malaria Eradication (the Commission) was convened to consider whether malaria eradication is feasible, affordable, and worthwhile. In this report of the Commission, we synthesize existing evidence and new epidemiological and financial analyses to show that malaria eradication by 2050 is a bold but attainable goal, and a necessary one given the never-ending struggle against drug and insecticide resistance and the social and economic costs associated with a failure to eradicate.

Frankenfeld CL, Leslie TF. County-level socioeconomic factors and residential racial, Hispanic, poverty, and unemployment segregation associated with drug overdose deaths in the United States, 2013-2017. Ann Epidemiol. 2019 Jul;35:12-19. 
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to evaluate overdose death rates in relation to socioeconomic characteristics and measures of socioeconomic residential segregation at substate geography.
METHODS: County overdose deaths were linked to socioeconomic characteristics that are related to social vulnerability. Dissimilarity and isolation segregation (comparing individual counties to the adjacent counties and state) and diversity were calculated for race, Hispanic ethnicity, poverty, and unemployment. Negative binomial regression was used to compare county characteristics to death rates.
RESULTS: Percent civilian disabled was positively associated with mortality across race and Hispanic ethnicity groups. Some discordant associations included racial and unemployment diversity (null for White, inverse for Hispanic and Black), percent unemployment (positive for White, inverse for Hispanic), percent crowded housing (positive for Black), uninsured (null for White, inverse for Black and Hispanic), and per capita income (positive for Black, inverse for Hispanic). Several residential segregation measures were also significantly associated with overdose death rates, and different magnitudes and directions of associations were observed by race and Hispanic ethnicity.
CONCLUSIONS: These results provide future directions, including roles of civilian disability, diversity, and evaluating differential impacts of segregation across racial and ethnic groups. Individual-level data, drug overdose incidence, or larger studies to evaluate interactions may help to elucidate mechanisms.

Rodin D, Silow-Carroll S, Cross-Barnet C, Courtot B, Hill I. Strategies to promote postpartum visit attendance among Medicaid participants. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2019 Sep;28(9):1246-1253
BACKGROUND: Postpartum care is important for promoting maternal and infant health and well-being. Nationally, less than 60% of Medicaid-enrolled women attend their postpartum visit. The Strong Start for Mothers and Newborns II Initiative, an enhanced prenatal care program, intended to improve birth outcomes among Medicaid beneficiaries, enrolled 45,599 women, and included 
a variety of approaches to increasing engagement in postpartum care. 
METHODS: This study analyzes qualitative case studies that include coded notes from 739 interviews with 1,074 key informants and 133 focus groups with 951 women; 4 years of annual memos capturing activities by each of 27 awardees and 24 Birth Center sites; and a review of interview and survey data from Medicaid officials in 20 states. 
RESULTS: Strong Start prenatal care included education and support regarding postpartum care and concerns. Key informants identified Strong Start services and other strategies they perceived as increasing access to postpartum care, including provider and/or care coordinator continuity across prenatal, delivery, and postpartum visits; efforts to address information gaps and link women to appropriate resources; enhancing services to meet needs such as treatment for depression; addressing barriers related to transportation and childcare; and aligning incentives to encourage prioritization of postpartum care among patients and providers. They also identified ongoing barriers to postpartum visit attendance. 
CONCLUSIONS: Postpartum care is essential to maternal and infant health. Medicaid enrolls many high-risk women and is the largest payer for postpartum care. Using lessons from Strong Start, providers who serve Medicaid-enrolled women can advance strategies to improve postpartum visit access and attendance.

Schier JG, Meiman JG, Layden J, et al. Severe pulmonary disease associated with electronic-cigarette-product use - interim guidance. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019 Sep 13;68(36):787-790. 
On September 6, 2019, this report was posted as an MMWR Early Release on the MMWR website (https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr). As of August 27, 2019, 215 possible cases of severe pulmonary disease associated with the use of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) products (e.g., devices, liquids, refill pods, and cartridges) had been reported to CDC by 25 state health departments. E-cigarettes are devices that produce an aerosol by heating a liquid containing various chemicals, including nicotine, flavorings, and other additives (e.g., propellants, solvents, and oils). Users inhale the aerosol, including any additives, into their lungs. Aerosols produced by e-cigarettes can contain harmful or potentially harmful substances, including heavy metals such as lead, volatile organic compounds, ultrafine particles, cancer-causing chemicals, or other agents such as chemicals used for cleaning the device (1). E-cigarettes also can be used to deliver tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal psychoactive component of cannabis, or other drugs; for example, "dabbing" involves superheating substances that contain high concentrations of THC and other plant compounds (e.g., cannabidiol) with the intent of inhaling the aerosol. E-cigarette users could potentially add other substances to the devices. This report summarizes available information and provides interim case definitions and guidance for reporting possible cases of severe pulmonary disease. The guidance in this report reflects data available as of September 6, 2019; guidance will be updated as additional information becomes available.

Tseng E, Greer RC, O'Rourke P, et al. National survey of primary care physicians' knowledge, practices, and perceptions of prediabetes. J Gen Intern Med. 2019 Sep 9. doi: 10.1007/s11606-019-05245-7. 
BACKGROUND: Despite strong evidence and national policy supporting type 2 diabetes prevention, little is known about type 2 diabetes prevention in the primary care setting.
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess primary care physicians' knowledge and practice regarding perceived barriers and potential interventions to improving management of prediabetes.
DESIGN: Cross-sectional mailed survey.
PARTICIPANTS: Nationally representative random sample of US primary care physicians (PCPs) identified from the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile.
MAIN MEASURES: We assessed PCP knowledge, practice behaviors, and perceptions related to prediabetes. We performed chi-square and Fisher's exact tests to evaluate the association between PCP characteristics and the main survey outcomes.
KEY RESULTS: In total, 298 (33%) eligible participants returned the survey. PCPs had limited knowledge of risk factors for prediabetes screening, laboratory diagnostic criteria for prediabetes, and management recommendations for patients with prediabetes. Only 36% of PCPs refer patients to a diabetes prevention lifestyle change program as their initial management approach, 
while 43% discuss starting metformin for prediabetes. PCPs believed that barriers to type 2 diabetes prevention are both at the individual level (e.g., patients' lack of motivation) and at the system level (e.g., lack of weight loss resources). PCPs reported that increased access to and insurance coverage of type 2 diabetes prevention programs and coordination of referral of patients to these resources would facilitate type 2 diabetes preventive efforts.
CONCLUSIONS: Addressing gaps in PCP knowledge may improve the identification and management of people with prediabetes, but system-level changes are necessary to support type 2 diabetes prevention in the primary 
care setting.

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Last updated October 7, 2019