• Questions? E-mail library@dshs.texas.gov.

Health Ministry-Faith Community Nursing Bibliography

A specialized area of professional nursing practice that focuses on health promotion within a faith community traditionally has been called "parish nursing." This web site offers a calendar of events of interest to nurses working within faith communities in Texas; selected Internet web sites; names and contact information of persons who have agreed to serve as expert resources from around the country; and bibliographic citations that describe parish nursing/health ministry or would be of use to nurses practicing within faith communities, whether the communities be called parishes, congregations or other forms of faith practice.

For additional information on the bibliography, contact Library Services at the Texas Department of State Health Services, at 512-776-7559, or e-mail library@dshs.texas.gov.

Selected Web Links
Resource People
Featured New Articles
Journal Articles
Theses and Dissertations 

Calendar (arranged in descending order)

2020 Westberg Symposium April 20-22, 2020 in Santa Fe, New Mexico. Presented by Westberg Institute in partnership with the Nursing Division of the Spiritual Care Association.

THMN Meeting-Friday, January 24, 2020
Holy Trinity Church, 14513 S Post Oak Rd, Houston 77045
Contact: patriciahorace@aol.com

Texas Health Ministries Network (THMN)
Fall Business Meeting & Faith Community Nurse Connections Program
Friday, October 25, 2019, 11:00 A.M. – 2:30 P.M.
@ Methodist Charlton Medical Center, 3500 W. Wheatland Rd., Dallas, TX 75237, Conference Room 4
Lunch and 1.5 CE will be provided.  Please RSVP by October 18th to DorisGiles@mhd.com or call 214-947-7755
For lunch and CE presentation: 
Agenda: 11:00 AM – 12 Noon--Business Meeting
12 Noon – 1:00 PM- Lunch
1:00 PM – 2:30 PM – Educational Offering: “The Healing Effects of Music” Pam Stoyanoff
Directions for parking and to Conference Room 4: The main entrance to the hospital campus is located at the light/intersection of Wheatland Rd and Westmoreland Rd. Follow Westmoreland Rd onto the campus and turn right at streets end. Park in the parking garage (free parking) and enter the building at the area labeled Outpatient Center. Take the elevators to the 3rd floor. Follow signs to Conference Room 4.

Oct. 11 – 14, 2019. National Health Ministries Association (HMA) 30th Annual Meeting & Conference, Erlanger, Kentucky – https://hmassoc.org/news-events/upcoming-conference/ Speakers are listed on the website.

May 17, 2019. THMN Spring meeting will be held in San Antonio at 4507 Medical Center Drive in San Antonio.  Methodist Healthcare Ministries of South Texas, Wesley Nurses, will host the meeting in the board room. There is a large parking lot next to the building.  The business meeting begins at 11:00 a.m. and lunch will be provided. 1.5 CNE’s are offered for the program beginning at 1:00 PM. “Trauma Informed Care” means treating a whole person, taking into account past trauma and the resulting coping mechanisms when attempting to understand behaviors and treat the patient. RSVP for lunch to Imelda Perez: Iperez2@mhm.org by Friday, May 10th. Both members of THMN and non-members are invited to attend.

April 8-10, 2019: Westberg Symposium, Memphis – https://www.westberginstitute.org  

January 25 (Friday), 2019: Texas Health Ministries Network meeting, Baptist Hospitals of Southeast Texas, Professional Building, 740 Hospital Drive, Beaumont, TX 77701 - in the Spindle Top Conference Room, 3rd floor. Contact: rebekah.seymour@bhset.net

October 26 (Friday), 2018: Texas Health Ministries Network meeting, Texas Health Resources Arlington Memorial Hospital, McRae Classroom C1-2, 810 West Randol Mill Rd, Arlington 76012. The business meeting will begin at 11:00 a.m. followed by networking and lunch. The afternoon education topic will be on behavioral health and the role of congregations in decreasing stigma, using a congregational care kit which is being developed. Contact: carynpaulos@texashealth.org 
September 20, 2018: Fundamentals for Faith Health Promoter course, Azle. Contact: carynpaulos@texashealth.org

September 15, 2018: Fundamentals for Faith Health Promoter course, Fort Worth. Contact: carynpaulos@texashealth.org

September 8–10, 2018: HMA Annual Meeting and Conference, St. Elizabeth Training and Education Center3861 Olympich Erlanger, KY, 41018  

August 3-4, 10-11, 2018: Foundations of Faith Community Nursing Course, Beaumont. Contact rebekah.seymour@bhset.net

May 4, 2018. THMN Spring Meeting will be held in Austin. The location is Oak Hill United Methodist Church, 7815 Highway 290 West, Austin 78736 and will be hosted by Methodist Healthcare Ministries of South Texas Wesley Nurses.  The business meeting starts at 11:00 a.m. followed by lunch and networking.  The afternoon educational program follows, ending at 2:30 p.m.  For more information contact Catalina Schultze-Kraft at ckraft@mhm.org.

April 13, 2018: FCN Conference, “Faith Community Nursing in Action,” Baptist Hospitals of Southeast Texas, Beaumont. Contact rebekah.seymour@bhset.net

April 9-11, 2018: Westberg Symposium in Memphis, Tennessee. See https://www.Westberginstitute.org

January 26, 2018: Texas Health Ministries Network meeting will be held beginning at 11 a.m. at the First United Methodist Church in Pasadena.  The church address is 1062 Fairmont Parkway, Pasadena, TX 77504.  281-487-8787. http://www.firstpasadena.org   For more information, call 713-363-9671. 

Ongoing. Faith Community Nurse Teleconferences through Baptist Hospitals of Southeast Texas: register with rebekah.seymour@bhset.net.

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Selected Web Links

Please note that web addresses change often - these were valid as of 6/26/2019.

Bioterrorism information
Bioterrorism/Disaster Preparedness Resources from the Medical and Research Library (DSHS): http://www.dshs.texas.gov/library/bt-books.shtm
CDC website on bioterrorism and other public health emergencies: https://emergency.cdc.gov/bioterrorism/prep.asp
Texas Division of Emergency Management: http://www.dps.texas.gov/dem/index.htm

Funding Information Center. The FIC is part of the Texas Department of State Health Services, Library and Information Services Program, and provides information about public and private grant opportunities to promote public health. Services for Texas residents include a free weekly alert of new grants and a lending library of materials about funding sources and nonprofit management.

Health Ministries Association. HMA is an interfaith membership organization, serving the people who belong to the Faith Health Ministry Movement. This is the national organization's website.

Health Observances Calendar. Health observances are days, weeks, or months devoted to promoting particular health concerns. This calendar is sponsored by the National Health Information Center.

Interfaith Health Program, Emory University

Nurses Christian Fellowship. NCF provides a local, regional, national and international network for Christian nursing. It is the home of the Journal of Christian Nursing.

Texas Health Ministries Network. (Do not have a website at present.) The purpose of the Texas Health Ministries Network is to promote a statewide network for health promotion education and access to resources; provide educational opportunities targeted to members needs; and maintain a database of faith community nurses and health ministers in Texas. The target audience is faith community nurses and health ministers, including clergy, social workers, health administrators, and educators.

Texas Nurses' Association, District 5.

UMC Health Ministry Network. Information about parish nursing in general and in the United Methodist Church.

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Resource People

The following people are willing to be contacted as a resource for other health ministry/faith community nurses. To add yourself to this list, click here.

Rita Carlson, MSN, Volunteer Retired-RN
Parish Nurse Coordinator
Regional & Local Services, Region 6/5
Department of State Health Services
5425 Polk
Houston, TX 77023
(713) 767-3000
E-mail: rita.carlson@dshs.texas.gov
Area of expertise: Co-coordinates Parish Nurse Connections program at the Texas Department of State Health Services, including maintaining a detailed database of parish nurses in Texas for referral purposes.

Mary Chase-Ziolek, Professor of Health Ministries and Nursing, PhD, RN
North Park University and Seminary
3225 W. Foster Ave
Chicago, IL 60625
(773) 244-6201
E-mail: mchase-ziolek@northpark.edu
Area of expertise: Interdisciplinary health ministry education, faith-based community health initiatives, clergy health, religion, spirituality and health, online education.

Dorothy Chesley, RN, PhD
Volunteer Health Ministry Coordinator
Regional & Local Services, Region 6/5
Department of State Health Services
5425 Polk
Houston, TX 77023
(713) 767-3000
E-mail: dorothy.chesley@dshs.texas.gov
Area of expertise: Co-coordinates Parish Nurse Connections program at the Texas Department of State Health Services, including maintaining a detailed database of parish nurses in Texas for referral purposes.

Verda L. Gaines, RN, BSN, Faith Community Nurse, CHWI (Community Health Worker Instructor)
Houston, TX
(713) 408-7095
E-mail: verda1117@aol.com
The Great Physician’s Rx Ministry, SEHTA (Southeast Houston Transformation Alliance) OST/SU-GO Health & Wellness: Preventative Care, Coordinator
Area of expertise: Faith Community Health Outreach as a community resource as applied to underserved and traditionally marginalized communities utilizing a 'Health in All Policies' lens breaking out of 'Silos'- Health is not just blood pressures. It's education, jobs, housing, environment, socioeconomics, etc. Faith Community Nursing/ Coordinator 'community' model: Health Ministry, Lay Health Advocates, Community Health Worker Instruction, Volunteer recruitment, Community Engagement & Transformation, Susatainability, Outreach, Health Advocacy, Needs & Asset Assessment: Congregational, Community, Staff, Volunteer, Programs/Policies. Preventative Care: Health & Wellness, Healthy Living. Farmers Market & Community Garden as 'Public Spaces.' Faith/Spirituality: Inter-faith & Inter-religious, Intergenerational, Multi-Ethnic, Multicultural resources. Communication resources specifically by people of color Houston. FCN as an adjunct to Public Health, Hospital Transition/Coordination, Home Health, Hospice, School Nursing & Ambulatory Nursing. Health Education- fun and interactive for children, also teens to seniors.

Carol Gaskamp, PhD, RN
University of Texas at Austin
1700 Red River, Austin TX 78701
(512) 471-7306 (work)
E-mail: cgaskamp@mail.nur.utexas.edu (work)
Area of expertise: Assistant professor of clinical nursing, can serve in many areas - completed parish nurse curriculum in 2001.

Karen Hahn, PhD, RN, ANP
President, Center for Faith and Health Initiatives
14610 Wind Lawn Dr.
Houston, TX 77040
(832) 567-8316
E-mail: CenterforFaithandHealth@gmail.com
Area of expertise: The Center for Faith and Health Initiatives promotes community health through faith-based leadership.  Services provided are: consultation, leadership development, regional planning, spiritual direction, retreats, presentations, and conferences. The Center also co-coordinates the Greater Fifth Ward Congregational Health Coalition in near northeast Houston. 

Jane Hall, MS, RN
Nurses Christian Fellowship
863 Arlington Drive
Waco, TX 76712
(254) 772-8174
E-mail: hall2j@hot.rr.com
Area of expertise: Provide NCF resources, information, and conferences for faith community nurses/parish nurses regarding faith community nursing practice, providing spiritual care, and other topics of interest to Christian nurses.

Sharon T. Hinton, RN-BC, MSN, D.Min
312 West Georgia St.
Floydada, TX 79235
(806) 983-8096
E-mail: coordinator@ruralnurseresource.com
Area of expertise: Specialize in teaching Foundations of Faith Community Nursing, and continuing education, consultant for health ministry start-up and development, and spiritual journaling for individuals, retreats, and small groups. Available to speak nationally on a wide variety of health & safety topics.

Trisha (Patricia) Horace, Congregational Care Nurse, RN, MSN, MS
14513 South Post Oak Road
Houston, TX 77045
(713) 504-2311
Fax: (713) 433-2015
E-mail: patriciahorace@aol.com
Location: Holy Trinity MBC/Superneighborhood 40/Southwest Community.
Area of expertise: Oncology, Heart and Diabetes Association speakers bureau, Adjunct Professor at Houston Community College.

Paula K. Lilja, RN, DNSc, EFCA Health and Caring Ministry Educator, FCN Coordinator/Educator
3213 Scenic Shore Drive
Seabrook TX 77586
(281) 532-3060
E-mail: paula.lilja2@verizon.net
Area of expertise: Teach Foundations of Faith Community Nursing as an online course.  Affiliated with EFCA-ReachNational Compassion and Justice.

Kathryn Medovich, RN, BS, FCN
Lourdes Parish Nurse & Health Ministry Coordinator
184 Court Street
Binghamton, NY 13901
(607) 621-6735 (cell)
(607) 321-2633 (work)
E-mail: kmedovich@lourdes.com
Area of expertise: Speaker's bureau; resource person; development of health ministries & parish nurse programs; health cabinets; recruitment; annual seminar, health literacy and health fairs, involved in end of life issues, Spirituality in the Workplace, Diversity Council, involved as volunteer and professional in faith community nursing/health ministry, coordinating multi-faith soup kitchen health ministry and board member of ACT (Allied Christians of Tioga) Meal, board member and volunteer of the Rescue Mission.

Marsha D. Thomas, RN, BSHA
Global Educational Opportunities
P.O. Box 46668
Cincinnati OH 45246
(513) 884-0881
E-mail: mizmdt@yahoo.com 
Area of expertise: Parish Nurse Coordinator, specialty in engaging faith communities to change health outcomes.

Selma Ann Verse, RN, MEd
5081 SE Burning Tree Circle
Stuart, FL 34997
Cell Phone: 954-629-7865
Home phone: 772-287-0813
Fax: 772-283-5563
E-mail: Verses5@aol.com
Area of expertise: Independent Nursing Education Consultant and Parish Nurse, resource for developing and maintaining a parish nurse practice.

Monica J. Hughes, Executive Director, Director of Education, MSN, RN, NE-BC
203 Diamond Trail
Georgetown, TX 78613
E-mail: monica.faithhealthpartnerships@gmail.com
Area of expertise: Faith community nursing education, congregational health worker education

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Featured Articles

Devido JA, Doswell WM, Braxter BJ, Terry MA, Charron-Prochownik D. Exploring the experiences, challenges, and approaches of parish nurses in their community practice. J Holist Nurs. 2019 Jun;37(2):121-129. doi: 10.1177/0898010118801414. 
Purpose: To explore the personal experiences, challenges, and practices of parish nurses in their communities.
Method/Design: The overall study used a mixed methods concurrent embedded design to describe parish nurses' experiences with diabetes education and preconception counseling in their practice. Also included were descriptions of generalized practices. Therefore, this current report will focus on these broader experiences. Focus group data were collected using face-to-face, teleconference, and video conferencing formats with 48 nurses who consider themselves to be parish nurses and analyzed with content analysis.

Zahnd WE, Jenkins WD, Shackelford J, Lobb R, Sanders J, Bailey A. Rural Cancer Screening and Faith Community Nursing in the Era of the Affordable Care Act. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2018;29(1):71-80. doi: 10.1353/hpu.2018.0008.
Rural populations often face higher cancer rates and have lower cancer screening rates than urban populations. Screening disparities may be mediated by limited access to care, less knowledge of screening, and psychosocial factors. While the improved insurance rates and more comprehensive coverage under the Affordable Care Act may address some of these barriers, rural-urban disparities in cancer screening may not be fully attenuated. Faith-based interventions have been an effective approach to improving cancer screening among rural and underserved populations. Similarly, faith community nurses (FCNs) may be an effective agent for implementing evidence-based cancer screening strategies in rural communities. We provide a model for how FCNs standards of professional performance and practice can enable them to implement screening strategies. We also posit two recommendations of services that FCNs can provide to improve cancer screening in rural areas: educational messaging and patient navigation.

Bone N, Swinton M, Hoad N, Toledo F, Cook D. Critical Care Nurses' Experiences With Spiritual Care: The SPIRIT Study. Am J Crit Care. 2018 May;27(3):212-219. doi: 10.4037/ajcc2018300.
Background: Little is known about the effect of chaplains on critical care nurses who are caring for critically ill patients and their families.
Objective: To understand nurses' experiences when they make a referral to the Spiritual Care Department for a patient or the family of a patient who is dying or deceased. Specific aims were to explore spiritual care's effect on nurses and how nurses understand the role of spiritual care in practice.

Kazmer MM, Glueckauf RL, Schettini G, Ma J, Silva M. Qualitative Analysis of Faith Community Nurse-Led Cognitive-Behavioral and Spiritual Counseling for Dementia Caregivers. Qual Health Res. 2018 Mar;28(4):633-647. doi: 10.1177/1049732317743238. 
This article presents themes emerging from semistructured interviews with dementia family caregivers in rural communities who participated in an integrative, cognitive-behavioral and spiritual counseling intervention, and with faith community nurses (FCNs) who delivered the intervention. The primary objectives of the counseling intervention were to ameliorate dementia caregivers' depressive affect and the severity of their self-identified caregiving and self-care problems. The qualitative portion of the study was intended to elicit caregivers' and FCNs' perceptions of the benefits and drawbacks of the intervention. We conducted interviews with seven FCN/caregiver pairs 4 times during the 6-month counseling process, totaling 56 interviews. Themes emerging from the interviews included caregivers' perception of burden and care partners' problem behavior; formation of therapeutic alliance between FCNs and caregivers; problem-solving skills, tools, and resources; caregivers' use of problem-solving strategies; spirituality in caregiving and counseling processes; FCNs' prior professional experience; and caregiver and FCN time constraints.

Briggs M, Morzinski JA, Ellis J. Influences of a church-based intervention on falls risk among seniors. WMJ. 2017 Aug;116(3):161-164.
Background and Objectives: Prior studies illustrate that community-based programs effectively decrease falls risk in older adults and that faith-based programs improve health behaviors. The literature is unclear whether faith-based initiatives reduce seniors' fall risks. To tackle this gap, a long-term partnership led by 10 urban churches, a nearby nursing school, and a medical school developed a study with 3 objectives: determine baseline health concerns associated with falls (eg, depression, polypharmacy), implement a nurse-led, faith-based health education initiative for community-dwelling African American seniors at-risk of hospitalization, and assess pre- to post -program fall frequency. Methods: The 100 Healthy, At-Risk Families study team implemented 8 monthly educational health sessions promoting self-care and social support. Community nurses led the 60- to 90-minute sessions at each of 10 churches. To collect study data, nurses interviewed enrolled seniors pre- and post-intervention. Descriptive and comparison statistics were analyzed in Excel and Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Results: Senior data at baseline found high rates of polypharmacy and physical imbalance, and no significant depression or gaps in social support. There was not a statistically significant change pre- to post-program in fall frequency "in prior year." Conclusions: Study findings reveal insights about African American senior health and fall risks. Church settings may provide a protective, psychosocial buffer for seniors, while polypharmacy and mobility/balance concerns indicate need for continued attention to fall risks. No increase in pre- to post-program falls was encouraging.

Cooper J, Zimmerman W. The effect of a faith community nurse network and public health collaboration on hypertension prevention and control. Public Health Nurs. 2017 Apr 17. doi: 10.1111/phn.12325. [Epub ahead of print]
Background:  As part of the Association of State and Territorial Health Official's Million Hearts State Learning Collaborative in 2014 and 2015, Washington County, Maryland formed a collaboration between the local health department, health system and faith community nurse network to address the undiagnosed and uncontrolled hypertension in the county. Objectives: Data were analyzed to determine the effect of a faith community nursing intervention of teaching blood pressure self-monitoring and coaching blood pressure and lifestyle changes in the at-risk and hypertensive population. 
Methods: Thirty-nine faith community nurses offered a 3-month blood pressure self-monitoring and coaching intervention in 2014 and 2015 to 119 participants. A secondary data analysis using a repeated measure ANOVA to assess the differences in pre- and post-intervention systolic and diastolic blood pressure readings and a paired t-test to compare pre- and post-lifestyle scores was completed. Results: A total of 109 participants completed the program and were included in the analysis and were showing decreased blood pressure readings and improved lifestyle satisfaction scores in six out of seven areas across the program period. Conclusion: Coaching by faith community nurses creates an environment of sustained support that can promote improved lifestyles and blood pressure changes over time.

Dalencour M, Wong EC, Tang L, et al. The role of faith-based organizations in the depression care of African Americans and Hispanics in Los Angeles. Psychiatr Serv. 2016 Nov 15:appips201500318. [Epub ahead of print]
Objective: This study examined use of depression care provided by faith-based organizations (FBOs) by African Americans and Hispanics and factors associated with the receipt of such care, including mental illness severity and use of traditional mental health services. Methods: The study used baseline data from the Community Partners in Care study, a group-randomized trial comparing a community-partnered approach with a technical-assistance approach to improving depression care in underresourced communities in Los Angeles. A sample of 947 individuals (48% African American, 27% non-U.S.-born Hispanic, 15% U.S.-born Hispanic, and 10% non-Hispanic white) were surveyed about recent visits to a religious or spiritual place and receipt of FBO depression care. Descriptive analyses compared racial-ethnic, sociodemographic, and health service use variables for three groups: those who did not attend a religious place, those who attended a religious place and did not receive FBO depression services, and those who received FBO depression services. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify predictors of receipt of FBO depression care. Results: A larger proportion of African Americans and non-U.S.-born Hispanics received FBO faith-based depression services compared with non-Hispanic whites and with U.S.-born Hispanics. Receipt of FBO depression services was associated with younger age, lifetime diagnosis of mania, use of primary care depression services, and receipt of a mental health service from a substance abuse agency. Conclusions: FBO depression services were used in the community, especially by persons from racial-ethnic minority groups. Collaborative efforts between FBOs and traditional health services may increase access to depression services for African Americans and Latinos.

Devido JA, Doswell WM, Braxter BJ, et al. Experiences of parish nurses in providing diabetes education and preconception counseling to women with diabetes. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2017 Jan 16. pii: S0884-2175(16)30475-0. doi: 10.1016/j.jogn.2016.10.010. [Epub ahead of print]
Objective: To explore the role and experiences of the parish nurse in providing diabetes education and preconception counseling to women with diabetes. Design: Mixed-methods concurrent embedded design. Setting: Focus groups of community-based parish nurses accessed from a regional database (Pennsylvania, Florida, Ohio, New York, Arizona, and Minnesota). Participants: Forty-eight parish nurses recruited from the Parish Nurse and Health Ministry Program database in Western Pennsylvania. Methods: The primary method was focus groups using face-to-face, teleconference, and videoconferencing formats. A secondary method used a quantitative descriptive design with three self-report measures (demographic, preconception counseling self-efficacy, and preconception counseling knowledge). Qualitative content analysis techniques were conducted and combined with descriptive analysis. Results: Forty-eight parish nurses participated in 1 of 11 focus groups. Eight qualitative themes emerged: Awareness, Experience, Formal Training, Usefulness, Willingness, Confidence, "Wise Women," and Preconception Counseling Tool for Patients. Participants provided recommendations for training and resources to increase their knowledge and skills. Parish nurses' knowledge scores were low (mean = 66%, range = 40%-100%) with only moderate levels of self-efficacy (mean = 99, range = 27-164). Self-efficacy had a significantly positive association with knowledge (r = .29, p = .05). CONCLUSION: Quantitative results were consistent with participants' qualitative statements. Parish nurses were unaware of preconception counseling and lacked knowledge and teaching self-efficacy as it related to preconception counseling and diabetes education. Understanding parish nurses' experiences with women with diabetes and identifying their needs to provide education and preconception counseling will help tailor training interventions that could affect maternal and fetal outcomes.

Gotwals B. Self-efficacy and nutrition education: a study of the effect of an intervention with faith community nurses. J Relig Health. 2017 Aug 3. doi: 10.1007/s10943-017-0465-2. [Epub ahead of print]
The faith community provides an important access point for practice focused on population health at a time when health issues such as obesity and overweight are affecting large number of Americans. The purpose of this study was to examine faith community nurses' self-efficacy perceptions following a nutrition educational intervention. A convenience sample of 92 faith community nurses were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The t-distribution analysis revealed significant differences between the nutrition knowledge self-efficacy (p = .016) and nutrition counseling self-efficacy (p = .010) post-test scores for the experimental and control groups. This type of educational intervention provides a model to be used with faith community nurses as they integrate faith and health in this setting.

Gross TT, Story CR, Harvey IS, Allsopp M, Whitt-Glover M. "As a community, we need to be more health conscious": pastors' perceptions on the health status of the Black church and African-American communities. J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2017 Jul 13. doi: 10.1007/s40615-017-0401-x. [Epub ahead of print]
Background: Churches are recognized for their potential capacity to provide health services and interventions to address health disparities in African-Americans (blacks). Since pastors are central community leaders, their support and involvement can influence both implementation and outcomes for church-based health programs. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore pastors' perceptions of congregant health status within the black church. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 pastors whose female congregants participated in a physical activity intervention. Thematic analysis techniques were used to analyze interview data. Results: Three major themes emerged: (1) health risks in the African-American community, (2) health promotion in the black church, and (3) the importance of women in the black family and the church. Pastors noted numerous health disparities affecting their congregants and the African-American community at large, including obesity and infant mortality. They viewed health holistically and included faith in their perspectives. According to pastors, holistic health was promoted through health ministry programming in black churches. Women were described as the cornerstone of the black church, yet faced unique health concerns from their roles as family caretakers and congregants. Discussion: Pastors shared their major concerns for congregant health status and the African-American community. Health interventions focusing on African-Americans in church settings should include pastor involvement and should incorporate holistic approaches to address health risks.

Haddad LG, Al-Bashaireh AM, Ferrell AV, Ghadban R. Effectiveness of a culturally-tailored smoking cessation intervention for Arab-American men. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 Apr 13;14(4). pii: E411. doi: 10.3390/ijerph14040411.
To date, no smoking cessation programs are available for Arab American (ARA) men, who are a vulnerable population with high rates of smoking. Thus, the primary aim of this one group pre-test/post-test study was to assess the effectiveness of Sehatack-a culturally and linguistically tailored smoking cessation program for ARA men. The study sample was 79 ARA men with a mean age of 43 years who smoked between 5 and 40 cigarettes (mean = 19.75, SD = 9.1) per day (98.7%). All of the participants reported more interest in smoking cessation post-intervention and many of the participants in the baseline (38.5%) and post-intervention phases (47.7%) wanted to quit smoking "very much". For daily smokers who completed the smoking cessation program, the median number of cigarettes smoked daily was significantly lower than those in the post-intervention phase (Z = -6.915, p < 0.001). Results of this preliminary study indicate that: (a) Sehatack may be a promising way for ARA men to quit smoking, and (b) culturally relevant smoking cessation counselors can be trained to recruit and retain ARA smokers in an intensive group smoking cessation program. Strengths of this study were community engagement and rapport between three faith organizations and the University of Florida College of Nursing. However, a larger trial is needed to address study limitations and to confirm benefits in this population.

Kazmer MM, Glueckauf RL, Schettini G, Ma J, Silva M. Qualitative analysis of faith community nurse-led cognitive-behavioral and spiritual counseling for dementia caregivers. Qual Health Res. 2017 Nov 1:1049732317743238. doi: 10.1177/1049732317743238.
This article presents themes emerging from semistructured interviews with dementia family caregivers in rural communities who participated in an integrative, cognitive-behavioral and spiritual counseling intervention, and with faith community nurses (FCNs) who delivered the intervention. The primary objectives of the counseling intervention were to ameliorate dementia caregivers' depressive affect and the severity of their self-identified caregiving and self-care problems. The qualitative portion of the study was intended to elicit caregivers' and FCNs' perceptions of the benefits and drawbacks of the intervention. We conducted interviews with seven FCN/caregiver pairs 4 times during the 6-month counseling process, totaling 56 interviews. Themes emerging from the interviews included caregivers' perception of burden and care partners' problem behavior; formation of therapeutic alliance between FCNs and caregivers; problem-solving skills, tools, and resources; caregivers' use of problem-solving strategies; spirituality in caregiving and counseling processes; FCNs' prior professional experience; and caregiver and FCN time constraints.

Kim E, Boutain D, Kim S, Chun JJ, Im H. Integrating faith-based and community-based participatory research approaches to adapt the Korean Parent Training Program. J Pediatr Nurs. 2017 May 22. pii: S0882-5963(17)30156-2. doi: 10.1016/j.pedn.2017.05.004. [Epub ahead of print]
Purpose: Faith and community based inquiry approaches are rarely used to develop research interventions. The purpose of this article is to present how a research team worked with six Korean American Christian churches to revise the prototype Korean Parent Training Program (KPTP), based upon the Bright Futures Parenting Program. The collaboration was sought to better integrate and align the KPTP with Korean culture and faith. The KPTP was developed to promote positive parenting practices and decrease mental health disparities of Korean American children. Design and Methods: Sixteen church participants completed a Delphi survey, a workshop series, Community Theaters, and focus groups. Results: The participants suggested adding Korean traditional parenting virtues, Christian parenting principles, and revising the standardized parent training and program philosophy. Conclusions: Revisions made KPTP sensitive to Korean culture and faith, and promoted program acceptability. Implications: The process demonstrated the importance of working with church volunteers to develop faith-based and community-based health promotion interventions targeting Korean American faith communities. This research presents significant and meaningful implications for working with other faith communities from minority backgrounds.

Mock GS. Value and meaning of faith community nursing: client and nurse perspectives. J Christ Nurs. 2017 Jul/Sep;34(3):182-189. doi: 10.1097/CNJ.0000000000000393.
The literature that supports and describes faith community nursing (FCN) practice is extensive, but limited in describing the value and meaning of FCN to the community. A qualitative investigation of one FCN program led to emergence of five themes that illustrate the perceived importance of FCN to this community: tasks and services offered, nursing expertise, spirituality, familiarity, and community support. This exploration reveals the deeper value and meaning of FCN to the communities these nurses support.

Payne-Foster P, Bradley ELP, Aduloju-Ajijola N, et al. Testing our FAITHH: HIV stigma and knowledge after a faith-based HIV stigma reduction intervention in the Rural South. AIDS Care. 2017 Nov 9:1-8. doi: 10.1080/09540121.2017.1371664.
Eliminating racial/ethnic HIV disparities requires HIV-related stigma reduction. African-American churches have a history of addressing community concerns, including health issues, but may also contribute to stigma. We developed and pilot tested a faith-based, anti-stigma intervention with 12 African-American churches in rural Alabama. We measured HIV-related stigma held by 199 adults who participated in the intervention (individual-level) and their perception of stigma among other congregants (congregational-level). Analyses of pre- and post-assessments using a linear mixed model showed the anti-stigma intervention group reported a significant reduction in individual-level stigma compared with the control group (mean difference: -.70 intervention vs. -.16 control, adjusted p < .05). Findings suggest African-American churches may be poised to aid HIV stigma-reduction efforts.

Persell DJ. Vehicle of hope: faith-based disaster response. Nurs Clin North Am. 2016 Dec;51(4):697-721.
In August 2005, the United States experienced one of the most catastrophic and costly disasters in its history: Hurricane Katrina. Faith-based Organizations (FBOs) made a major contribution to the response and recovery efforts. Whereas the activities and skill sets of FBOs vary, their core missions are very similar: they want to provide hope. As a concept, hope has been purported to be essential for health and well-being, is viewed as multidimensional and a life force, as well as is highly individualized. This mixed methods study used interviews of the phenomenology tradition and the Herth Hope Index.

Zhi Q, Merrill JA, Gershon RR. Mass-fatality incident preparedness among faith-based organizations. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017 Jul 4:1-8. doi: 10.1017/S1049023X17006665. [Epub ahead of print]
Introduction: Members of faith-based organizations (FBOs) are in a unique position to provide support and services to their local communities during disasters. Because of their close community ties and well-established trust, they can play an especially critical role in helping communities heal in the aftermath of a mass-fatality incident (MFI). Faith-based organizations are considered an important disaster resource and partner under the National Response Plan (NRP) and National Response Framework; however, their level of preparedness and response capabilities with respect to MFIs has never been evaluated. The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) to develop appropriate measures of preparedness for this sector; (2) to assess MFI preparedness among United States FBOs; and (3) to identify key factors associated with MFI preparedness. Problem New metrics for MFI preparedness, comprised of three domains (organizational capabilities, operational capabilities, and resource sharing partnerships), were developed and tested in a national convenience sample of FBO members. Methods: Data were collected using an online anonymous survey that was distributed through two major, national faith-based associations and social media during a 6-week period in 2014. Descriptive, bivariate, and correlational analyses were conducted. Results: One hundred twenty-four respondents completed the online survey. More than one-half of the FBOs had responded to MFIs in the previous five years. Only 20% of respondents thought that roughly three-quarters of FBO clergy would be able to respond to MFIs, with or without hazardous contamination. A higher proportion (45%) thought that most FBO clergy would be willing to respond, but only 37% thought they would be willing if hazardous contamination was involved. Almost all respondents reported that their FBO was capable of providing emotional care and grief counseling in response to MFIs. Resource sharing partnerships were typically in place with other voluntary organizations (73%) and less likely with local death care sector organizations (27%) or Departments of Health (DOHs; 32%). Conclusions: The study suggests improvements are needed in terms of staff training in general, and specifically, drills with planning partners are needed. Greater cooperation and inclusion of FBOs in national planning and training will likely benefit overall MFI preparedness in the US. 

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Journal Articles

[The following selected articles are from well-known journals and should be available in most nursing libraries.]

Anaebere AK, Delilly CR. Faith community nursing: supporting mental health during life transitions. Issues in Mental Health Nursing. 2012 May;33(5):337-9.

Anderson CM. The delivery of health care in faith-based organizations: parish nurses as promoters of health. Health Communication, 2004; 16(1):117-28.

Armmer FA, et al. Parish nursing: extending health care to urban African-Americans. N and HC Perspectives on Community, 1995 Mar-Apr;16(2):64-8.

Baldwin KA, et al.  Perceived health needs of urban African American church congregants.  Public Health Nursing, 2001 Sep-Oct, 18(5):295-303.

Balint KA, George NM. Faith community nursing scope of practice: extending access to healthcare. J Christ Nurs. 2015 Jan-Mar;32(1):34-40.

Bay MJ. Healing partners: the oncology nurse and the parish nurse. Seminars in Oncology Nursing, 1997 Nov;13(4):275-8.

Bergquist S, et al. Parish nursing--a conceptual framework. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 1994 Jun;12(2):155-70.

Biddix V, Brown HN. Establishing a parish nursing program. Nursing and Health Care Perspectives, 1999, Mar-Apr. 20(2):72-5.

Boario M.  Mercy model: Church-based health care in the inner city.  Journal of Christian Nursing, 1993 Winter;10(1):20-22.

Bokinskie JC, Kloster PK. Effective parish nursing: building success and overcoming barriers. Journal of Christian Nursing, 2008 Jan-Mar;25(1):20-5.

Boland CS. Parish nursing. Addressing the significance of social support and spirituality for sustained health-promoting behaviors in the elderly. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 1998  Sep;16(3):355-68.

Boutain DM. Collective knowledge sharing as a social justice strategy: the difference it made in a service project about preterm birth disparity. ANS Advances in Nursing Science. 2009 Apr-Jun;32(2):E68-80.

Brown AR, et al. Faith community nursing demonstrates good stewardship of community benefit dollars through cost savings and cost avoidance. Family & Community Health. 2009 Oct-Dec;32(4):330-8.

Brudenell I. Parish nursing: nurturing body, mind, spirit, and community. Public Health Nursing, 2003 Mar-Apr, 20(2):85-94

Brudenell I. Parish nursing: nurturing body, mind, spirit, and community. , 2003 Mar-Apr, 20(2):85-94

Buijs R, Olson J.  Parish nurses influencing determinants of health.  Journal of Community Health Nursing, 2001 Spring, 18(1):13-23.

Bunkers SS. A nursing theory-guided model of health ministry: human becoming in parish nursing. Nursing Science Quarterly, 1998 Spring;11(1):7-8.

Bunkers SS; Michaels C; Ethridge P. Advanced practice nursing in community: nursing's opportunity. Advanced Practice Nursing Quarterly, 1997, 2(4):79-84.

Carlson GE. Minister of health... the parish nurse. MCN: American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing, 1989, 14(5):305-6.

Cassidy K.  Partners in healing: home care, hospice, and parish nurses.  Home Healthcare Nurse, 2002 Mar, 20(3):179-83.

Catanzaro AM, Meador KG, Koenig HG, Kuchibhatla M, Clipp EC. Congregational health ministries: a national study of pastors' views. Public Health Nursing, 2007 Jan-Feb;24(1):6-17.

Chase-Ziolek, M, Gruca J.  Clients' perceptions of distinctive aspects in nursing care received within a congregational setting.  Journal of Community Health Nursing, 2000 Fall, 17(3):171-83.

Chase-Ziolek M, Striepe J. A Comparison of urban versus rural experiences of nurses volunteering to promote health in churches. Public Health Nursing, 1999, 16(4):270-279.

Chase-Ziolek M, Iris M. Nurses' perspectives on the distinctive aspects of providing nursing care in a congregational setting. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 2002 Fall, 19(3):173-86.

Cherry C. Using Family History to Assess Women's Cancer Risk in a Parish Nurse Setting. Nursing and Health Sciences, 2006 Jun; 8(2):129.

Chesley DA. Parish nursing & cancer prevention. Texas Nursing, 1998, 72(6):5. 

Coenen A, Weis, DM, Matheus, R. Describing Parish Nurse Practice Using the Nursing Minimum Data Set. Public Health Nursing. 1999, 16(6):412-416.

Connor A, Donohue ML. Integrating faith and health in the care of persons experiencing homelessness using the parish nursing faculty practice model. Family & Community Health. 2010 Apr-Jun;33(2):123-32.

Cooper J, Zimmerman W. The evaluation of a regional faith community network's Million Hearts program. Public Health Nurs. 2016 Jan-Feb;33(1):53-64.Cooper KC, King MA, Sarpong DF. Tipping the scales on obesity: church-based health promotion for African American women. J Christ Nurs. 2015 Jan-Mar;32(1):41-5.

Cowart LW, et al. Designing and pilot-testing a church-based community program to reduce obesity among African Americans. ABNF Journal. 2010 Winter;21(1):4-10.

Dandridge R. Faith community/parish nurse literature: exciting interventions, unclear outcomes. J Christ Nurs. 2014 Apr-Jun;31(2):100-6.

Daniels NA, Juarbe T, Moreno-John G, Perez-Stable EJ. Effectiveness of adult vaccination programs in faith-based organizations.Ethnicity & Disease, 2007 Winter;17(1 Suppl 1):S15-22.

DeHaven MJ, Hunter IB, Wilder L, Walton JW, Berry J. Health programs in faith-based organizations: are they effective? American Journal of Public Health, 2004 Jun; 94(6):1030-6.

DeSchepper C. Healthier Communities through Parish Nursing. Health Progress, 1999, 80(4):56-58.

Dossett E, Fuentes S, Klap R, Wells K. Obstacles and opportunities in providing mental health services through a faith-based network in Los Angeles. Psychiatric Services 2005 Feb; 56(2):206-8.

Drummond M; Buss TF; Ladigo MA. Volunteers for community health... parish nursing programs. Health Progress, 1992, 73(5):20-4.

Dunkle RM. Parish nurses help patients--body and soul. RN. 1996 May;59(5):55-7.

Dyess SM, Chase SK. Sustaining health in faith community nursing practice: emerging processes that support the development of a middle-range theory. Holistic Nursing Practice. 2012 Jul-Aug;26(4):221-7.

Dyess S, Chase SK, Newlin K. State of research for Faith Community Nursing 2009. Journal of Religion and Health. 2010 Jun;49(2):188-99.

Ebersole P.  Parish nurse leaders.  Geriatric Nursing, 2000 May;21(3):148-149.

Elwell J. Practical health promotion: weekly health tips for the faith community. J Christ Nurs. 2015 Jul-Sep;32(3):174-8.

Farrell SP, Rigney DB. From dream to reality: how a parish nurse program is born. Journal of Christian Nursing, 2005 Winter; 22(2):34-7.

Forster-Burke D, Ritter L, Zimmer S. Collaboration of a model osteoporosis prevention and management program in a faith community. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2010 Mar;39(2):212-9.

Friedemann ML, Mouch J, Racey T. Nursing the spirit: the Framework of Systemic Organization.
Journal of Advanced Nursing, 2002 Aug. 39(4):325-332.

Garity J, Ryan A. The impact of an advisory board on a parish nurse program. Journal of Nursing Administration, 2002 Dec, 32(12):616-9.

Grebeldinger TA, Buckley KM. You are not alone: parish nurses bridge challenges for family caregivers. J Christ Nurs. 2016 Jan-Mar;33(1):50-6.

Hall CP, Hall JD, Pfriemer JT, Wimberley PD, Jones CH. Effects of a culturally sensitive education program on the breast cancer knowledge and beliefs of Hispanic women. Oncology Nursing Forum, 2007 Nov;34(6):1195-202.

Harris MD. Nursing in the faith community. Nursing. 2011 Jan;41(1):46-8.

Hegarty M, Hammond L, Parish K, Glaetzer K, McHugh A, Grbich C. Nursing documentation: non-physical dimensions of end-of-life care in acute wards. International Journal of Palliative Nursing, 2005 Dec; 11(12):632-6.

Hemstrom M, et al.  The clinical specialist in community health nursing: A solution for the 21st century.  Public Health Nursing, 2000 Sep-Oct;17(5):386-91.

Horton SE, Alvear EE, Horton DL. Health ministry partnerships: creating a habit for health. J Christ Nurs. 2014 Jan-Mar;31(1):28-33.

Huggins D. Parish nursing: a community-based outreach program of care. Orthopaedic Nursing, 1998 Mar-Apr;17(2 Suppl):26-30.

Hughes CB. Primary care parish nursing: outcomes and implications. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 2001 Fall; 26(1):45-59.

Joel LA. Parish nursing: as old as faith communities. American Journal of Nursing, 1998 Aug;98(8):7.

Kennedy BM, Paeratakul S, Champagne CM, et al. A pilot church-based weight loss program for African-American adults using church members as health educators: a comparison of individual and group intervention. Ethnicity and Disease, 2005 Summer; 15(3):373-8.

King JM, et al. Coalition building between public health nurses and parish nurses. Journal of Nursing Administration, 1993 Feb;23(2):27-31.

King MA, Pappas-Rogich M. Faith community nurses: implementing Healthy People standards to promote the health of elderly clients. Geriatric Nursing. 2011 Nov-Dec;32(6):459-64.

Kiser M; Boario M; Hilton D. Transformation for health: a participatory empowerment education training model in the faith community. Journal of Health Education, 1995, 26(6):361-5.

Kolb SE. Ministerio de Salud: development of a mission driven partnership for addressing health disparities in a Hispanic community. Journal of Multicultural Nursing and Health, 2003 Fall; 9(3): 6-12.

Kotecki CN. Incorporating faith-based partnerships into the curriculum. Nurse Educator, 2002 Jan-Feb, 27(1):13-5.

Kuhn JK. A profile of parish nurses. Journal of Christian Nursing, 1997 Winter, 14(1):26-8.

Laken MA, Wilcox S, Swinton R. Working across faith and science to improve the health of African Americans. Ethnicity & Disease, 2007 Winter;17(1 Suppl 1):S23-6.

Lenehan GP. Free clinics and parish nursing offer unique rewards. Journal of Emergency Nursing 1998 Feb;24(1):3-4.

Ludwig-Beymer P, et al. Keeping people healthy--parish nursing's role in CQI. Journal of Christian Nursing, 1998 Winter;15(1):28-31.

Maddox M. Clinical experience in parish nursing. Journal of Christian Nursing, 2003 Spring, 20(2):18-20.

Magilvy JK, et al. Parish nursing: advancing practice nursing. Model for healthier communities. Advanced Practice Nursing Quarterly, 1997 Spring;2(4):67-72.

Matteson MA, Reilly M, Moseley M.  Needs assessment of homebound elders in a parish church: Implications for parish nursing.  Geriatric Nursing, 2000 May;21(3):144-147.

Mayernik D, Resick LK, Skomo ML, Mandock K. Parish nurse-initiated interdisciplinary mobile health care delivery project. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2010 Mar;39(2):227-34.

McCabe J, Somers S. Faith community nursing: meeting the needs of seniors. Journal of Christian Nursing. 2009 Apr-Jun;26(2):104-9.

McDermott MA; Solari-Twadell PA; Matheus R. Promoting quality education for the parish nurse and parish nurse coordinator. Nursing and Health Care Perspectives, 1998, 19(1):4-6.

McDermott MA, et al. When the population is a congregation: the emerging role of the parish nurse. Journal of Community Health Nursing 1993;10(3):179-90.

McGee AK. Parish nursing brings health care closer to home. Texas Nursing, 1998, 72(6):4-5, 12. 

McGinnis SL, Zoske FM. The emerging role of faith community nurses in prevention and management of chronic disease. Policy, Politics & Nursing Practice, 2008 Aug;9(3):173-80.

McMillan LR, Smith-Hendricks C, Gore T. A volunteer citizen-servant pilot program using tailored messages to empower Alabamians to live healthier lives. Public Health Nursing. 2010 Nov-Dec;27(6):513-9.

Medvene LJ, Wescott JV, Huckstadt A, Ludlum J, Langel S, Mick K, Patrick R, Base M. Promoting signing of advance directives in faith communities. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 2003 Nov; 18(11): 914-20.

Mendelson SG, McNeese-Smith D, Koniak-Griffin D, Nyamathi A, Lu MC. A community-based parish nurse intervention program for Mexican American women with gestational diabetes. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing. 2008 Jul-Aug;37(4):415-25.

Miles L. Getting started. Parish nursing in a rural community. Journal of Christian Nursing, 1997 Winter, 14(1):22-5.

Miller S, Carson S. A documentation approach for faith community nursing. Creative Nursing. 2010;16(3):122-31.

Miskelly S. A parish nursing model: applying the community health nursing process in a church community. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 1995, 12(1):1-14.

Monay V, Mangione CM, Sorrell-Thompson A, Baig AA. Services delivered by faith-community nurses to individuals with elevated blood pressure. Public Health Nursing. 2010 Nov-Dec;27(6):537-43.

Morris GS. Holistic health care for the medically uninsured: the Church Health Center of Memphis. Ethn Dis. 2015 Nov 5;25(4):507-10.

Mosack V, Medvene LJ, Wescott J. Differences between parish nurses and parish nurse associates: results of a statewide survey of an ecumenical network. Public Health Nursing, 2006 Jul-Aug; 23(4):347-53.

Nelson BJ.  Parish nursing:  Holistic care for the community.  AJN, 2000 May, 100(5):24A-24D.

Nist JA. Parish nursing programs. Through them, faith communities are reclaiming a role in healing. Health Progress, 2003 Jan-Feb, 84(1):50-4.

O'Brien M. Parish nursing: meeting spiritual needs of elders near the end of life. Journal of Christian Nursing, 2006 Summer; 23(1):28-33.

Olson JK, et al. Educating parish nurses. Canadian Nurse, 1998 Sep, 94(8):40-4.

Otterness N, Gehrke P, Sener IM. Partnerships between nursing education and faith communities: benefits and challenges. Journal of Nursing Education, 2007 Jan;46(1):39-44.

Pappas-Rogich M, King M. Faith community nursing: supporting Healthy People 2020 initiatives. J Christ Nurs. 2014 Oct-Dec;31(4):228-34.

Parish nursing.  Journal of Health Care Chaplaincy, 2001, Vol. 11, number 2 (whole issue).

Parish nursing: expanding the vision. Journal of Christian Nursing, Summer 2001, Vol. 18, number 3 (whole issue).

Parker W. How well do parish nurses document? Journal of Christian Nursing, 2004 Spring;21(2):13-4.

Patillo MM, Chesley D, Castles P. Faith community nursing: parish nursing/health ministry collaboration model in central Texas. Family & Community Health, 2002 Oct, 25(3):41-51.

Patterson DL. Eight advocacy roles for parish nurses. Journal of Christian Nursing, 2007 Jan-Mar;24(1):33-5.

Perkin K. Parish nursing and hospitals. Health Progress, 2007 Jan-Feb;88(1):44-7, 69.

Peterson, JE. Breaking the cycle of school violence. How can parish nurses help? Journal of Christian Nursing, Summer 2001, 18(3):20-23.

Peterson J, Atwood JR, Yates B. Key elements for church-based health promotion programs: outcome-based literature review. Public Health Nursing, 2002 Nov-Dec, 19(6):401-11.

Quenstedt-Moe G. Parish nursing & home care. Journal of Christian Nursing, 2003 Summer;20(3):26-30; comment 31.

Quinn ME, Guion WK. A faith-based and cultural approach to promoting self-efficacy and regular exercise in older African American women. Gerontology & Geriatrics Education. 2010;31(1):1-18.

Reifsnider E, et al. Shaking and rattling: developing a child obesity prevention program using a faith-based community approach. Family and Community Health. 2010 Apr-Jun;33(2):144-51.

Reilly JR, et al. Spread the word, not the germs: a toolkit for faith communities. Journal of Christian Nursing. 2011 Oct-Dec;28(4):205-11.

Rethemeyer A, Wehling BA. How are we doing? Measuring the effectiveness of parish nursing.Journal of Christian Nursing, 2004 Spring;21(2):10-2.

Reusch AC; Gilmore GD. Developing and Implementing a Healthy Heart Program for Women in a Parish Setting. Holistic Nursing Practice, 1999, 13(4):9-18.

Rouse DP.  Parish nursing: A community-based pediatric clinical experience.  Nurse Educator, 2000 Jan-Feb;25(1):8, 11.

Routson JL, Hinton ST. Domestic violence and the role of the parish nurse. Journal of Christian Nursing. 2010 Oct-Dec;27(4):302-5. PubMed PMID: 20949866.

Rush CH. Return on investment from employment of community health workers. Journal of Ambulatory Care Management. Vol. 35(2):133-7 (2012 Apr-Jun).

Rydholm L. Patient-focused care in parish nursing. Holistic Nursing Practice, 1997 Apr;11(3):47-60.

Rydholm L, et al. Care of community-dwelling older adults by faith community nurses. Journal of Gerontological Nursing. 2008 Apr;34(4):18-29.

Salewski RM. Meeting holistic health needs through a religious organization: the congregation. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 1993 Jun;11(2):183-96.

Sattin RW, Williams LB, Dias J, et al. Community trial of a faith-based lifestyle intervention to prevent diabetes among African-Americans. J Community Health. 2016 Feb;41(1):87-96.Schank MJ, et al. Parish nursing: ministry of healing. Geriatric Nursing, 1996 Jan-Feb;17(1):11-13.

Schumann R.  Documenting congregational nursing care: a model.  Journal of Christian Nursing, 1997 Spring, 14(2):32-4.

Schweitzer R, Norberg M, Larson L. The parish nurse coordinator: a bridge to spiritual health care leadership for the future. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 2002 Sep, 20(3):212-31; quiz 207-11.

Scott L, et al. How do parish nurses help people? A research perspective. Journal of Christian Nursing, 1993 Winter, 10(1):16-8.

Shores C. Spiritual interventions and the impact of a faith community nursing program. Issues Ment Health Nurs. 2014 Apr;35(4):299-305.

Solari-Twadell A; Westberg G. Body, mind, and soul: the parish nurse offers physical, emotional, and spiritual care. Health Progress, 1991, 72(7):24-8.

Solari-Twadell PA, Hackbarth DP. Evidence for a new paradigm of the ministry of parish nursing practice using the nursing intervention classification system. Nurs Outlook. 2010 Mar-Apr;58(2):69-75.

Solari-Twadell PA. Providing coping assistance for women with behavioral interventions. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2010 Mar;39(2):205-11.

Solari-Twadell PA. The caring congregation. A healing place.  Journal of Christian Nursing, 1997 Winter, 14(1):4-9.

St Bowman C. Four keys to success in parish nursing. A California hospital and local churches cooperate to bring healthcare to the neighborhood. Health Progress, 1999, 80(2):40-2.

Striepe JM, et al. Basics for beginning a parish nurse program. Journal of Christian Nursing, 1993 Winter, 10(1):12-5.

Swinney J, Anson-Wonkka C, Maki E, Corneau J. Community Assessment: A Church Community and the Parish Nurse. Public Health Nursing. 2001 Jan-Feb, 18(1):40-4.

Taylor EJ, Testerman N, Hart D. Teaching spiritual care to nursing students:an integrated model. J Christ Nurs. 2014 Apr-Jun;31(2):94-9.

Thomas DJ, King MA.  Parish nursing assessment--what should you know?  Home Healthcare Nurse Manager, 2000 Sep-Oct, 4(5):11-13.

Thompson P. Clergy knowledge and attitudes concerning faith community nursing: toward a three-dimensional scale. Public Health Nursing. 2010 Jan-Feb;27(1):71-8.

Timmons SM. African American church health programs: what works? Journal of Christian Nursing. 2010 Apr-Jun;27(2):100-5.

Tompkins C, Sorrell JM. Older adults with Alzheimer's disease in a faith community. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 2008 Jan;46(1):22-5.

Trofino J, Hughes CB, Hay KM. Primary care parish nursing: academic, service, and parish partnership. Nursing Administration Quarterly 2000 Fall, 25(1):59-74.

Tuck I, Pullen L, Wallace D. A comparative study of the spiritual perspectives and interventions of mental health and parish nurses. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 2001, 22(6):593-606.

Tuck I, Wallace D, Pullen L. Spirituality and spiritual care provided by parish nurses. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 2001 Aug;23(5):441-462.

Tuck I, Wallace DC.  Exploring parish nursing from an ethnographic perspective.    Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 2000 Oct, 11(4):290-9.

Van Dover L, Pfeiffer J. Spiritual care in Christian parish nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 2007 Jan 15;57(2):213-221.

Wallace DC, et al.  Client perceptions of parish nursing.  Public Health Nursing, 2002 Mar-Apr, 19(2):128-35.

Weis D, et al. Health care delivery in faith communities: the parish nurse model. Public Health Nursing, 1997 Dec;14(6):368-72.

Weis D, Schank MJ, Matheus R. The process of empowerment: a parish nurse perspective. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 2006 Mar; 24(1):17-24.

Weis DM, Schank MJ, Coenen A, Matheus R. Parish nurse practice with client aggregates.
Journal of Community Health Nursing, 2002 Summer, 19(2):105-13.

Weis D, Schank MJ.  Use of a taxonomy to describe parish nurse practice with older adults.  Geriatric Nursing, 2000 May;21(3):125-131.

Westberg G. Parish nursing's pioneer. A JCN interview. Journal of Christian Nursing, 1989 Winter;6(1):26-9.

Westberg G.  The role of the congregation in preventive medicine.  Journal of Religion and Health, 1986:25(3):193-197.

Whisenant D, Cortes C, Hill J. Is faith-based health promotion effective? Results from two programs. J Christ Nurs. 2014 Jul-Sep;31(3):188-93.

Whisnant, Scott. The Parish Nurse: Tending to the Spiritual Side of Health. Holistic Nursing Practice, 1999 Oct.;14(1):84. 

White JA, Drechsel J, Johnson J. Faithfully fit forever: a holistic exercise and wellness program for faith communities. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 2006 Jun; 24(2):127-31.

Willis RE, Krichten AE. Stopping the ouch of injury: injury prevention for faith community nurses. Journal of Trauma Nursing. 2012 Jan-Mar;19(1):17-22.

Wilson RP. What does a parish nurse do? Journal of Christian Nursing, 1997 Winter;14(1): 13-6.

Yeaworth RC, Sailors R. Faith community nursing: real care, real cost savings. J Christ Nurs. 2014 Jul-Sep;31(3):178-83.

Zahner SJ, Corrado SM. Local health department partnerships with faith-based organizations. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, 2004 May-Jun; 10(3):258-65.

Zersen D. Parish nursing: 20th-century fad? Journal of Christian Nursing, 1994 Spring;11(2):19-21, 45.

Ziebarth D, Campbell KP. A transitional care model using faith community nurses. J Christ Nurs. 2016 Apr-Jun;33(2):112-118.Ziebarth D. Evolutionary conceptual analysis: faith community nursing. J Relig Health. 2014 Dec;53(6):1817-35.

Ziebarth DJ, Miller CL. Exploring parish nurses' perspectives of parish nurse training. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2010 Jun;41(6):273-80.

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Theses and Dissertations

[Availability: These are probably only available from the university or college where they were submitted or through a commercial information service like ProQuest Dissertations & Theses. Check with your local library to see if inter-library loan service is available.]

Bagley, Carol A. Parish Nurse Practice Implementation: Opportunities and Barriers. Ph.D. dissertation, Walden University, 2011 (130 p.).

Bay, Mary Josephine. Educational and Experiential Formation in Parish Nursing. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, 2004 (189 p.).

Bokinskie, Jean C. Perceived levels of empowerment in parish nursing. Ph.D. dissertation, University of North Dakota, 2010 (209 p.).

Boyes, Pattie Aletha. Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of a Parish Nursing Practice. M.Ed. dissertation, The University of Manitoba, Canada, 1999 (178 p.).

Burkhart, Elizabeth Ely. An Instance of Knowledge Representation: Measuring the Domain Completeness of the Nursing Interventions Classification System in Parish Nurse Documentation. Ph.D. dissertation, Loyola University of Chicago, 2002 (269 p.).

Cater, Gloria Jean Harris. Faith Community Nursing: A Case Study of Its Impact on African Americans with Type 2 Diabetes. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Massachusetts Boston, 2010 (141 p.).

Chase-Ziolek, Mary Ann. Health Ministry in the Life of a Congregation with a Parish Nurse: Caring and Connecting through Christ. Ph.D. dissertation, Loyola University of Chicago, 1998 (292 p.).

Clark, Margaret Beckwith. Interdisciplinary Ministry Collaboration: Faith and Health. D.Min. dissertation, St. Stephen's College, Canada, 2000 (213 p.).

Deliganis JE. Parish Nurses' Perceptions of their Educational Needs: A Study of Nurses who have Attended the National Parish Nurse Resource Center's Orientation Programs. Thesis, Texas A&M University, 1994 (281 p.).

Devido, Jessica. Exploring the Role of the Parish Nurse in Providing Diabetes Education and Preconception Counseling to African American Women Using a Community-Engaged Mixed Methods Approach. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pittsburgh, 2014 (226 p.).

Dieffenbach L. The Parishioners' Perceptions and the Role of the Parish Nurse. Thesis, College Misericordia, 1992 (120 p.).

Flahive, Margaret Mary. Parish nurses: Promoting a Ministry of Service in Catholic Parishes in the Archdiocese of Milwaukee. Ed.D. dissertation, Cardinal Stritch University, 2002 (171 p.).

Fuentes SK. Effects of Parish Nursing on Client Wellness. Thesis, Azusa Pacific University, 1997 (89 p.).

Geeding, Dan Magnus. Ministering to "Twelve Step Oriented Persons" through Biblical Curriculum in the Context of Parish Nursing. D.Min. dissertation, Fuller Theological Seminary, 1999 (267 p.).

Glenn PA. The Parish Nurse and the Health Promotion Model: A Feasible Partnership? Thesis, Indiana Wesleyan University, 1993 (68 p.).

Gotwals, Beth Ann. Parish nurses' perceived self-efficacy in nutritional health promotion and disease prevention counseling. Ph.D. dissertation, Widener University School of Nursing, 2011 (237 p.).

Hanson MR. Development of a Congregation-Based Parish Nurse Practice within a Rural Faith Community. Thesis, Capital University, 1997 (214 p.).

Hill DW. A Study of the Parish Nurse Movement: Historical Evolution, Congregational Interest, and Parish Nurse Role Functioning. Thesis, Delta State University, 1996 (18 p.).

King MA. The experience of choosing the parish nurse for health care services. Ph.D. dissertation, West Virginia University, 2007 (148 p.).

Larson LC. An Investigation of Parish Nursing and the Relationships between Congregational Assessments, Comparisons and Partnerships. Thesis, Indiana Wesleyan University, 1997 (105p).

Mang, Ann Marie. Parish Nursing. M.S. dissertation, D'Youville College, 2001 (79 p.).

Mendelson SG. A Community-Based Parish Nurse Intervention Program for Mexican-American Women with Gestational Diabetes. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles, 2007 (124 p.).

Meyer, Anne Elizabeth. Parish Nursing and Health Ministry: Brought to a Pew Near You. M.S.N. dissertation, Bellarmine College, 1999 (33 p.).

Miller, Lynda Whitney. A Nursing Conceptual Model Grounded In Christian Faith. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Victoria, Canada, 1996 (253 p.).

Mobley, Deborah Darlene Simpson. The lived experience of faith community nurses living the call to health ministry. Ph.D. dissertation, Virginia Commonwealth University, 2009 (158 p.).

Moss MM. Nursing students' perceptions of clients' spirituality, spiritual needs, and spiritual care in faith communities. Ph.D. dissertation, George Mason University, 2007 (139 p.).

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Potter, Marcia. The Role of Health Ministry in the Global Healthcare Arena. M.A. dissertation, State University of New York Empire State College, 2006 (79 p.).

Roy L. Identification of the spiritual nursing care practices of volunteer parish nurses. Thesis, California State University, San Bernardino, Department of Nursing, 2003.

Scott LM. An adult and higher education perspective on the parish nursing experience. Dissertation, University of South Dakota, 1992 (248 p). [UMI Order #PUZ9228934]

Shores, Cynthia I. The impact of a faith community nursing program on a culturally diverse community. Ph.D. dissertation, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 2011 (425 p.).

Solari-Twadell, Phyllis Ann. The Differentiation of the Ministry of Parish Nursing Practice within Congregations. Ph.D. dissertation, Loyola University of Chicago, 2002 (227 p.).

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Tormoehlen, Lucy. A Learning Needs Assessment of Parish Nurses. Ed.D. dissertation, Ball State University, 2009 (136 p.).

Voisine, Michelle Casey. The Lived Experience of Recipients of Parish Nursing Care. M.S.N. dissertation, Southern Connecticut State University, 2004 (79 p.).

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Last updated August 24, 2020