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Medical and Research Library News - July 2022

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Retirement News:
David McLellan, long-time MRL Librarian, will retire on July 15 after 37 years of state service. David’s dedication and vast wealth of institutional knowledge have been wonderful assets to the MRL for many years. Please stop by the Library, Moreton M-652, on Friday, July 15 from 1-3 p.m. for a retirement open house in honor of David.

Training opportunities
Websites and reports on trending topics
Journal articles of note                      


July 2022

Training opportunities

Note: The following webinars and online classes are not affiliated with DSHS or the DSHS Library. They are presented here as opportunities to learn more information of interest to public health personnel. All times listed are in Central Daylight Time.

July 7, 2022; 11 a.m.-12 p.m. Where Hope Knocks: Personalized Therapies in Rare Disease. Even though the total number of patients with rare diseases exceeds 300 million, each rare disease affects only a small number of patients. Consequently, the standard model for developing new medicines is often not profitable enough for pharmaceutical companies to produce therapeutics for the thousands of rare diseases known to exist. Join this webinar from the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) to learn about how new drug design methodologies allow us to contemplate designer medicines for very small groups of patients or even individuals. https://view6.workcast.net/register?cpak=3020791826048509&referrer=DL1&et_rid=198161687&et_cid=4302541

July 15, 2022; 12-1 p.m. Depression & Suicidality Among Men. Men in America commit more than 75% of all suicide deaths each year and evidence has been collected worldwide that suggests men are far less likely to seek help for mental health challenges, irrespective of age, nationality, or ethnic or racial background. Mental health issues in men often remain hidden, overlooked, or undertreated. This interactive session from The Bureau of Primary Health Care (BPHC) Behavioral Health (BH) Technical Assistance (TA) will address suicidality as a behavioral condition, suicide care management in practice, and evidence-based treatment for suicide. https://us06web.zoom.us/meeting/register/tZMpcOmtpz4uHde9xaSkpnP5EmzY-cAQIyT0

July 26, 2022; 11:30 a.m.-12:30 p.m. A Return to School Health: Opportunities for Prioritizing Student Health in the Upcoming School Year. Student development and participation in healthy behaviors such as physical activity, healthy eating, and mental health programs are important components of comprehensive school programming. Engagement in these activities can also be predictive of academic and health outcomes. Schools and school districts can prioritize health behaviors in various ways, including in their policies and district-wide health agendas. This presentation from the Michael & Susan Dell Center for Healthy Living will share some recent research about how school districts in Texas prioritize health and offer suggestions on how districts and schools can improve their school health environment. https://sph.uth.edu/research/centers/dell/events/detail.htm?id=ef3df775-1f22-47fc-83b7-c1b153c7f87e

July 27, 2022; 1-2 p.m. From Problem to Prevention: Evidence Based Public Health. Curious about evidence-based public health (EBPH) but not sure where to start? This class will explain the basics of evidence-based public health (EBPH) and highlight essentials of the EBPH process such as identifying the problem, forming a question, searching the literature, and evaluating the intervention. The purpose of this class from the Network of the National Library of Medicine (NNLM) is to introduce the world of evidence based public health and to give those already familiar with EBPH useful information that can be applied in their practices. https://nnlm.gov/training/class/problem-prevention-evidence-based-public-health-1


Websites and reports on trending topics

988 Suicide and Crisis Lifeline Toolkit – The U.S. is getting close to the transition to 988—the easy-to-remember number to reach the existing National Suicide Prevention Lifeline. This transition is an important step to strengthening and transforming the crisis care continuum in the United States. This toolkit from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) includes Frequently Asked Questions and many other materials that you can use to educate your community. https://www.samhsa.gov/find-help/988/partner-toolkit

CINAHL Complete – This DSHS Library resource provides access to the literature in nursing and allied health disciplines dating back to 1981. The full text of 600 journals can be found within, and over 5,600 journals are indexed including virtually all English language nursing journals along with selected titles in biomedicine, alternative therapies, and consumer health. 

ERIC – The ERIC (Education Resources Information Center) database is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education to provide extensive access to educational-related literature. ERIC provides coverage of journal articles, conferences, meetings, government documents, theses, reports, audiovisual media, and monographs. https://eric.ed.gov/

Evolving Crisis Standards of Care and Ongoing Lessons from COVID-1 - Proceedings of a Workshop Series - Crisis Standards of Care (CSC) inform decisions on medical care during a large-scale crisis such as a pandemic or natural disaster, eliminating the need to make these decisions at the bedside without protections or guidance. Numerous points throughout the COVID-19 pandemic have demonstrated the necessity of this type of crisis planning. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine Forum on Medical and Public Health Preparedness for Disasters and Emergencies convened a series of public workshops to examine the experiences of healthcare providers during the COVID-19 pandemic and identify lessons that can inform current and future CSC planning and implementation. The workshops examined staffing and workforce needs, planning and implementation of CSC plans, and legal, ethical, and equity considerations of CSC planning. https://nap.nationalacademies.org/catalog/26573/evolving-crisis-standards-of-care-and-ongoing-lessons-from-covid-19


Journal articles of note

Cates J, Baker JM, Almendares O, et al. Interim analysis of acute hepatitis of unknown etiology in children aged <10 years - United States, October 2021-June 2022. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2022;71(26):852-858. Published 2022 Jul 1. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm7126e1
Abstract
On April 21, 2022, CDC issued a health advisory† encouraging U.S. clinicians to report all patients aged <10 years with hepatitis of unknown etiology to public health authorities, after identification of similar cases in both the United States (1) and Europe. A high proportion of initially reported patients had adenovirus detected in whole blood specimens, thus the health advisory encouraged clinicians to consider requesting adenovirus testing, preferentially on whole blood specimens. For patients meeting the criteria in the health advisory (patients under investigation [PUIs]), jurisdictional public health authorities abstracted medical charts and interviewed patient caregivers. As of June 15, 2022, a total of 296 PUIs with hepatitis onset on or after October 1, 2021, were reported from 42 U.S. jurisdictions. The median age of PUIs was 2 years, 2 months. Most PUIs were hospitalized (89.9%); 18 (6.1%) required a liver transplant, and 11 (3.7%) died. Adenovirus was detected in a respiratory, blood, or stool specimen of 100 (44.6%) of 224 patients. Current or past infection with SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) was reported in 10 of 98 (10.2%) and 32 of 123 (26.0%) patients, respectively. No common exposures (e.g., travel, food, or toxicants) were identified. This nationwide investigation is ongoing. Further clinical data are needed to understand the cause of hepatitis in these patients and to assess the potential association with adenovirus.

Kancherla V, Tandaki L, Sundar M, et al. A multicountry analysis of prevalence and mortality among neonates and children with bladder exstrophy [published online ahead of print, 2022 May 29]. Am J Perinatol. 2022. doi:10.1055/s-0042-1748318
Abstract
Objective: Bladder exstrophy (BE) is a rare but severe birth defect affecting the lower abdominal wall and genitourinary system. The objective of the study is to examine the total prevalence, trends in prevalence, and age-specific mortality among individuals with BE.
Study design: We conducted a retrospective cohort study. Data were analyzed from 20 birth defects surveillance programs, members of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research in 16 countries. Live births, stillbirths, and elective terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly (ETOPFA) diagnosed with BE from 1974 to 2014. Pooled and program-specific prevalence of BE per 100,000 total births was calculated. The 95% confidence intervals (CI) for prevalence were estimated using Poisson approximation of binomial distribution. Time trends in prevalence of BE from 2000 to 2014 were examined using Poisson regression. Proportion of deaths among BE cases was calculated on the day of birth, day 2 to 6, day 7 to 27, day 28 to 364, 1 to 4 years, and ?5 years. Mortality analysis was stratified by isolated, multiple, and syndromic case status.
Results: The pooled total prevalence of BE was 2.58 per 100,000 total births (95% CI = 2.40, 2.78) for study years 1974 to 2014. Prevalence varied over time with a decreasing trend from 2000 to 2014. The first-week mortality proportion was 3.5, 17.3, and 14.6% among isolated, multiple, and syndromic BE cases, respectively. The majority of first-week mortality occurred on the first day of life among isolated, multiple, and syndromic BE cases. The proportion of first-week deaths was higher among cases reported from programs in Latin America where ETOPFA services were not available.
Conclusions: Prevalence of BE varied by program and showed a decreasing trend from 2000 to -2014. Mortality is a concern among multiple and syndromic cases, and a high proportion of deaths among cases occurred during the first week of life.

O'Connor EA, Evans CV, Ivlev I, et al. Vitamin and mineral supplements for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer: updated evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA. 2022;327(23):2334-2347. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.15650
Abstract
Importance: Cardiovascular disease and cancer are the 2 leading causes of death in the US, and vitamin and mineral supplementation has been proposed to help prevent these conditions.
Objective: To review the benefits and harms of vitamin and mineral supplementation in healthy adults to prevent cardiovascular disease and cancer to inform the US Preventive Services Task Force.
Data sources: MEDLINE, PubMed (publisher-supplied records only), Cochrane Library, and Embase (January 2013 to February 1, 2022); prior reviews.
Study selection: English-language randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of vitamin or mineral use among adults without cardiovascular disease or cancer and with no known vitamin or mineral deficiencies; observational cohort studies examining serious harms. Data extraction and synthesis: Single extraction, verified by a second reviewer. Quantitative pooling methods appropriate for rare events were used for most analyses. Main outcomes and measures: Mortality, cardiovascular disease events, cancer incidence, serious harms.
Results: Eighty-four studies (N=739 803) were included. In pooled analyses, multivitamin use was significantly associated with a lower incidence of any cancer (odds ratio [OR], 0.93 [95% CI, 0.87-0.99]; 4 RCTs [n=48 859]; absolute risk difference [ARD] range among adequately powered trials, -0.2% to -1.2%) and lung cancer (OR, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.58-0.95]; 2 RCTs [n=36 052]; ARD, 0.2%). However, the evidence for multivitamins had important limitations. Beta carotene (with or without vitamin A) was significantly associated with an increased risk of lung cancer (OR, 1.20 [95% CI, 1.01-1.42]; 4 RCTs [n=94 830]; ARD range, -0.1% to 0.6%) and cardiovascular mortality (OR, 1.10 [95% CI, 1.02-1.19]; 5 RCTs [n=94 506] ARD range, -0.8% to 0.8%). Vitamin D use was not significantly associated with all-cause mortality (OR, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.91-1.02]; 27 RCTs [n=117 082]), cardiovascular disease (eg, composite cardiovascular disease event outcome: OR, 1.00 [95% CI, 0.95-1.05]; 7 RCTs [n=74 925]), or cancer outcomes (eg, any cancer incidence: OR, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.92-1.03]; 19 RCTs [n=86 899]). Vitamin E was not significantly associated with all-cause mortality (OR, 1.02 [95% CI, 0.97-1.07]; 9 RCTs [n=107 772]), cardiovascular disease events (OR, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.90-1.04]; 4 RCTs [n=62 136]), or cancer incidence (OR, 1.02 [95% CI, 0.98-1.08]; 5 RCTs [n=76 777]). Evidence for benefit of other supplements was equivocal, minimal, or absent. Limited evidence suggested some supplements may be associated with higher risk of serious harms (hip fracture [vitamin A], hemorrhagic stroke [vitamin E], and kidney stones [vitamin C, calcium]).
Conclusions and relevance: Vitamin and mineral supplementation was associated with little or no benefit in preventing cancer, cardiovascular disease, and death, with the exception of a small benefit for cancer incidence with multivitamin use. Beta carotene was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer and other harmful outcomes in persons at high risk of lung cancer.

Schwarz M, Torre D, Lozano-Ojalvo D, et al. Rapid, scalable assessment of SARS-CoV-2 cellular immunity by whole-blood PCR [published online ahead of print, 2022 Jun 13]. Nat Biotechnol. 2022. doi:10.1038/s41587-022-01347-6 
Abstract
Fast, high-throughput methods for measuring the level and duration of protective immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 are needed to anticipate the risk of breakthrough infections. Here we report the development of two quantitative PCR assays for SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell activation. The assays are rapid, internally normalized and probe-based: qTACT requires RNA extraction and dqTACT avoids sample preparation steps. Both assays rely on the quantification of CXCL10 messenger RNA, a chemokine whose expression is strongly correlated with activation of antigen-specific T cells. On restimulation of whole-blood cells with SARS-CoV-2 viral antigens, viral-specific T cells secrete IFN-?, which stimulates monocytes to produce CXCL10. CXCL10 mRNA can thus serve as a proxy to quantify cellular immunity. Our assays may allow large-scale monitoring of the magnitude and duration of functional T cell immunity to SARS-CoV-2, thus helping to prioritize revaccination strategies in vulnerable populations.


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Last updated August 11, 2022